After Main Lesson in the grades, the children have subject classes. Most are taught by dedicated subject teachers who work with the children within their particular area of expertise. These classes build upon the Main Lesson curriculum and allow the children to expand their learning about themselves and the world. In these classes, children acquire new skills and passions for working with their hands, making music, moving their body, or speaking in a foreign language. These vary from grade to grade and may include Choir, Strings/Winds, Painting, Clay/Beeswax Modeling, Handwork, Woodwork, Spanish, Form Drawing, Eurythmy, Games and Gardening.
- Grades 1 and 2 – Knitting
- Grade 3 – Crochet, Fiber Crafts
- Grade 4 – Embroidery
- Grade 5 – Knitting in the Round
- Grade 6 – Hand Sewing Animals
- Grade 7 – Hand Sewing
- Grade 8 – Machine Sewing
Knitting trains dexterity in both hands and awakens the child’s mental powers. They see a transformation of a single thread into a two dimensional fabric which can have a three dimensional purpose.
In first and second grade, children develop and improve their fine motor skills and strengthen their abilities in knitting. Knitting improves hand-eye coordination and their ability to focus on a task. As the children begin developing a sense for practical design, they are introduced to color choices and pleasing proportions. Traditionally, sometime in the fall of first grade, eighth graders teach their first grade buddies how to knit. This helps to build relationships between the lower and middle schools. They will learn the ‘knit and purl stitch’ as well as ‘casting on’ stitches. They will also learn to decrease and increase stitches, incorporating math skills in counting, subtracting and adding.
In second grade, working with wool teaches the children’s fingers the feel of natural things. Clear colors allow them to experience the tones and distinguish color families from each other. Projects are introduced and assigned according to a child’s ability. The children create a small animal, usually a cat, at the beginning of the year and then move on to working attentively and excitedly on other gnomes/dolls as they’re learning new stitches and shaping tricks.
The third grade handwork curriculum dovetails the main lesson curriculum in that we bring more active and practical work into the class. The children are learning about farming and structures from around the world in main lesson, so spinning, natural dyeing, and crochet are taught in handwork classes. Most of the year is spent in mastering crochet and making a small project, such as a mat or washcloth and then a hat. Crochet calls upon new finger dexterity and is challenging for the third grader.
The ability to create a round object that moves outward in a balanced rhythm helps ground the children through the nine-year change. This year can be a challenging year for the students as they no longer see themselves as part of a whole, but rather separate and different. In the spring, the children learn to spin using drop spindles. First, they learn how to card wool to prepare it for spinning. Then, the children dye the yarn with natural dyes and then use it in a simple weaving project.
In this year, the students will learn the basic chain stitch and apply the chain stitch in different ways, with more complex combinations of thread manipulations. They will learn to follow a predetermined count of stitches that changes each row in a numerical pattern. They will learn to increase and decrease stitches and judge when to do so, design their own pattern, and learn how yarn is spun from fleece.
The children start the year with a weaving project using yarn that they dyed last spring. Then, they make a pencil bag. On the cover, the children sew an embroidery sample using different stitches. Finally, they learn the cross stitch. This concept is introduced through a watercolor exercise on folded paper, transferring exact image from one side to the other. The students are asked to draw the pattern on grid paper, creating mirror image designs in two and four directions. Now, they are ready to create a pin cushion or book mark.
The children are being asked to use more precision in their work. The successful completion of the projects, particularly the cross-stitch project, takes care and an ability to see nuances of pattern and balance. In this year, they will complete a weaving project, make a pencil bag, sew an embroidery sample of different stitches, and make a project using cross-stitch.
Fifth grade brings the students back around to knitting again but at a much more advanced level. They have gone through the nine-year change and are ready for more challenging work. They are in a more harmonious place and are standing with their feet more firmly fixed on the ground.
Periods of easy, rhythmical knitting are interspersed with those more intellectually demanding, like increasing and decreasing, which require them to stay “awake”. It’s a mathematical process that fits their development at this time. This is the last year that knitting is done as part of the regular handwork curriculum and they will make a sock or a hat using a difficult pattern.
In sixth grade, the focus is on soft sculpture. This work comes at a time when the students are often experiencing inner turmoil as they approach adolescence. They need something different to keep them interested and engaged in their work. First, the students make curved forms out of clay that evolve into animals. Next, the students select an animal, study it and draw a side view of it. Then, they create a pattern out of the drawing. Later, this pattern is cut out of fabric and sewn together. Accuracy skills are critical when cutting and sewing very small stitches or the pieces of the fabric won’t fit together. They also have to create a gusset (underbody/belly portion) for their animal so that it can be opened and stuffed into a three-dimensional object.
The animal project requires imagination, artistry, craftsmanship and the determination to complete a complex project. The sixth grader often has one leg in and one leg out of childhood and the animal project can offer a sense of comfort in the midst of all this confusion. They will create an animal out of clay, then use this as a model to create a pattern. They will use the pattern to sew the animal, including a gusset.
In seventh grade, the focus is doll making. At our school, the students are introduced to puppetry. By preparing a story for younger children, the seventh graders partake in community service. This work allows the seventh grader to develop a better awareness of his actions and words on others. In preparation for this work, a puppeteer comes and introduces the seventh grade class to string marionettes. The choice of the story is made with Early Childhood in mind. Each student makes a character from the story, which means creating a body complete with head, hair, legs and arms. Once the base of the puppet is complete, final touches create the real character. The hands are the last step for the final stringing.
The seventh graders give such joy to the younger children through their production; they see how much their work penetrates the young child. This project encourages seventh graders to be good role models for younger children, to be upright and responsible young adults.
In eighth grade, the students build on what they have learned so far and turn to machine sewing. This coincides with their study of the Industrial Revolution in main lesson. By the end of eighth grade, the students have a good grounding in textile arts but more importantly, they have learned perseverance, an appreciation of beauty and a sense of satisfaction that comes from accomplishment.
|Eurythmy makes language and music visible through movement. Eurythmy acts as a social art by having children move in particular forms as a group. Eurythmy develops balance, coordination, and spatial awareness within each child.
We are proud that our Eurythmy program spans preschool through eighth grade. Eurythmy is offered twice a week per grade by a fully-trained Eurythmist. Once a year, we offer a Eurythmy performance at an off-site location to showcase what the grades students have been learning in this subject class. All parents are encouraged to come.
In Early Childhood, Eurythmy is offered every Tuesday morning all year long. The Early Childhood Eurythmy teacher brings a unique mix of Eurythmy as well as developmental movement exercises, commonly known as zoo exercises. These developmental movement exercises are presented in beautiful, fun, imaginative circles, full of light and laughter. Doing these movements repeatedly, which are recapitulations of natural and normal developmental movements, are thought to aid in the dissolution of retained primitive and postural reflexes, thus freeing up the movement body of the child.
In first and second grade, stories form the basis for all Eurythmy. First graders do simple movements accompanied by fairy tales and music while second graders are learning more complicated games and listening to fables. The stories and music ignite the children’s imagination and help them grow together as a group.
In third grade, students are taught the movements for each sound. Poetry is brought and the exercises grow ever more challenging. Nearly all of the movements in first, second and third grade take place within the circle. Finally in third grade, the class moves from an oval to a lemniscate.
Fourth grade becomes more demanding as the children require movements which challenge their physical and intellectual capacities. Concentration, alliteration, and copper rod work become central. Also, the children begin to move from a central orientation to a stage orientation; in other words, they learn to face an audience.
In fifth through eighth grade, the students have grown and are capable of more advanced work. Performing and creating artistic pieces together is at the center. As the exercises become more challenging, counter rhythms, rod tossing and more, the students show how capable they are for leading roles. The social art of Eurythmy begins to shine in fifth grade; it continues to grow and be visible as the students mature in middle school.
|Movement is carefully woven throughout the grades; it’s part of the breathing out and balance of any lesson. Our school has a dedicated instructor for our games classes who has taught for many years. This instructor brings the curriculum in developmentally-appropriate ways, following the footsteps of Kim John Payne’s stages of play. These stages of play are important as they connect child development with the timing of certain activities. In early childhood, children should have solitary, parallel, and “let’s pretend” play before moving on to game playing. Children gain important social skills, like impulse control and cooperation, which serve healthy interactions at eight, nine, and ten years old. Following these stages of play, children are allowed to grow and develop in safe, healthy ways.|
In first and second grade, the students live in the world of imagination and imitation. Games are presented in the form of a story and the students transform themselves into animals, princes, or thieves. Games like "Bunnies and Burrows", "Scarecrow Tag" and "Giants, Wizards, and Elves" are played. Class begins with a formal greeting to the students. The first activity usually involves movement as a group in the spirit of helping the class teacher form the class. Then, a story is told and a game is played. Throughout the year, the children take time to enjoy the seasons and beautiful surroundings by going on walks to the duck pond and park, jumping in leaf piles, or digging on the dirt hill.
At our school, Spanish is offered in first through eighth grade. All classes have Spanish twice a week all year long. The Spanish teacher, who is a native Spanish speaker, has been at the school for many years and has dedicated her time and energy to learning Waldorf methodology.
In all the grades, Spanish lessons are brought in an a fun and engaging way through games, drawings and interactive activities. All lessons are tailored to meet the specific needs of each child every year.
In first through third grade, lessons are brought through imitation, gestures, storytelling, songs, poems, puppetry and movement. Children also learn vocabulary, like colors, parts of the body, animals, days of the week and numbers to name a few. In addition, children are able to follow commands, recite verses, sing Spanish songs and answer basic questions. By learning this way, students feel inspired and value another language.
In these early years, the students are learning the sounds of another language and able to understand basic repetitive questions and sentences. By second and third grade, they will learn to answer questions in complete sentences, learn songs and poems by heart, and follow simple directions in Spanish. They will also learn basic vocabulary, like parts of the body, colors, numbers, food, animals, seasons, basic shapes, and opposites in first grade. This will continue with days of the week, months, items of clothing, common names of family members, and the position of objects in second grade. In third grade, they will continue to review and expand on old vocabulary and learn new words, like parts of the house and occupations in third grade. They will listen to simple books: Oso Café, Oso Polar in first grade, La Oruga Tiena Hambre and La Araña Muy Ocupada in second grade and Donde Duermen los Animales, La Gallinita Roja and La Viejita Que No Tiene Miedo a Nada in third grade. By third grade, students will learn to tell time, perform plays and skits, and learn about the cost of items in Spanish.
In fourth grade, students learn how to read and write in Spanish. Grammar is also formally introduced. A variety of activities are used to create descriptive sentences. They will memorize, recite or perform poems and songs. The students learn the agreement of gender, pronouns and a number of nouns with adjectives and articles. Students learn the alphabet in Spanish and begin to write in Spanish.
In fifth grade, students memorize many verbs, both regular and irregular, and learn to conjugate them in the present tense, such as ir, ser, estar, and tener.. They will review and learn new vocabulary, like classroom objects, places around the city, and verbs, especially the meaning of new verbs. They are able to retell stories and answer questions in complete sentences. Spelling is a focus of their written work. They will learn personal pronouns, placement of adjectives, gender and number of nouns in agreement with articles, and present tense for regular verbs. They will learn about countries that speak Spanish.
In sixth grade, the verbs, ser and estar, are studied in depth. The students continue to master spelling and pronunciation. They become quite capable of retelling stories, answering questions in complete sentences and learning the capitals of Spanish speaking countries. Of course, vocabulary is constantly being expanded. They will learn more irregular verbs, like querer, poder, pensar, and gustar.
In seventh and eighth grade, other tenses besides present tense are studied. The students learn perfect, imperfect and future tenses. More tenses are included if the class is ready for them. In addition, more irregular verbs are introduced. Important Hispanic landmarks and famous Spanish speaking people are studied. The students make oral presentations and take tests on a regular basis in order to memorize the grammatical structure of more complex sentences and they read and retell stories. Students are expected to understand and respond to new questions by applying grammar and vocabulary studied and to understand the majority of the lesson, which is conducted in Spanish, primarily. They will learn new vocabulary, reflexive verbs, more regular and irregular verbs, direct and indirect object pronouns. Their grammar will develop further, like present, preterit, future and present progressive verbs. The teacher may introduce past and present perfect, present subjunctive, commands, conditional and imperfect in eighth grade. Students will complete a project about a Latin American or Spanish landmark in seventh grade. By eighth grade, complete a project about an important Hispanic artist, writer, or politician.
Our strings program begins in the fourth grade with our dedicated Strings teacher, when students learn to play the violin, viola, or cello.
The strings class teaching style combines two common methods of strings instruction – ear training and note reading. Ear training, the approach used in the Suzuki method, develops a good sense of intonation, while note reading ability allows the students to rehearse effectively together in an ensemble. These skills are developed further in the fifth grade strings class. Students in sixth through eighth grade who wish to continue playing a stringed instrument rehearse as strings ensembles. Currently, the sixth grade strings players are in a separate class and the seventh and eighth grade strings players are combined into one class. Ensemble repertoire incorporates a variety of musical styles including renaissance, baroque, classical, and romantic chamber music. We also enjoy playing movie tunes and holiday music. All strings classes meet twice per week. Sixth through eighth grade strings classes include music theory instruction that focuses on utilizing key signatures in the keys of C, G, D, A, F and B-flat major as well as the construction of major and minor scales. Students are expected to practice at home in the following way: fourth grade for twenty minutes, four times a week, fifth grade for twenty minutes, five times a week, and sixth through eighth grade thirty minutes, five times a week.
Strings classes typically perform at the Winter Assembly and the Strings Concert in the spring. Additional performance opportunities have included community service concerts at nursing and retirement homes.
Our students may choose to join the band program at the beginning of sixth grade. The instrument choices are: flute, clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, or trombone/baritone horn. If students want to learn drums, they must complete one year on bells or on any of the above four choices instruments and then switch in seventh grade. Other instruments such as French horn and oboe are possible if the student is currently playing said instrument for at least one year.
Students learn to read music through the use of scales, arpeggios, and rhythm exercises with emphasis placed on using classical, jazz, and popular styles of music. Students experience what it’s like to work together toward a common goal through performance. The band performs in the Winter Assembly, May Faire and an end of the year concert. There may also be other performance opportunities during the year.
The objectives for Advanced Band are to finish Book Two Tradition of Excellence, including the scales B-flat, E-flat, F, G, and A-flat major, A & D minor and also the chromatic scale and rhythms up to sixteenth notes. Emphasis is on playing in tune, sight-reading, articulation, dynamics, and phrasing. The students typically learn fifteen to twenty new tunes each year, most of which are performed in concerts.
The Objectives for Beginning Band are to learn all the basic ideas presented in Book One Tradition of Excellence, including the scales B-flat, E-flat, and F-major. Students also work on the chromatic scale and rhythms up to eighth and dotted quarter notes. Emphasis is on playing in tune, articulation, dynamics, and phrasing. Students typically learn eight to ten new tunes each year, most of which are performed in concerts. Students are required to practice on a regular basis. Memorizing the scales in the back of the book is highly recommended.
|In 2011/2012, woodworking classes were introduced to fifth and sixth grade. The following year, the program expanded to include all of middle school, fifth through eighth grade. Woodwork complements the existing handwork program by developing the will. Students exercising patience and care are able to transform raw materials into something beautiful and useful. Woodworking causes a dawning reverence for the natural world.|
In fifth grade, students are introduced to the nature of wood and the many ways that it contributes to human living. Students learn to guide the transformation of raw wood into items of usefulness and beauty using simple yet effective tools. The school year begins with the shaping of a butter knife out of locally-obtained sycamore wood using a coping saw, rasps, and sand paper. The knife is completed by Winter break, and it glows with a final coating of olive oil and beeswax. Next, students take on the more challenging project of carving a mouse out of birch or sycamore branch wood. With a carving knife in hand, the students gain a more direct and organic connection to the wood compared to the sawing and rasping already learned. In the end, the mouse is adorned with ears, eyes and tail, which has a delightful animating effect on their wooden creation. The use of short projects to keep students engaged, while others are completing larger projects, add variety and interest. Other short projects make use of local branch wood to craft buttons and carve wall hooks. An introduction to gouges and relief carving may also be introduced at the end of fifth grade.
In sixth grade, students continue with carving which consists of the insightful removal of wood until the desired form is achieved. They begin the year by making a simple mallet. This project gives them the experience of crafting a tool that they then put to use in the making of a spoon. The spoon, so familiar yet also complex in form, challenges their growing capabilities and leaves them with something that is both pleasing and practical. To create the spoon, students begin with branch wood and learn to use an axe to rough out the basic form of the spoon. The use of the gouge and mallet is introduced next, and the spoon is completed using carving and other shaping methods.
Seventh grade marks a shift to woodworking that requires measuring and constructing but still offers creative expression and practical application. In addition, an attempt is made to complement some aspect of the classroom curriculum. To achieve these goals, a tortilla press is made as it illustrates the physics presented in the classroom, and is very useful at home. The press has a lever and fulcrum, and is hinged. Students learn to measure and saw accurately by hand, use a draw knife and shaving horse, and are challenged to drill with accuracy. The press also contains a wood joint which must be sound and sturdy. The press is made from a combination of purchased dimensional hardwood and local urban branch wood of the students’ choice. Following completion of this project and as time permits, students craft items that are useful to the school. They may make bat houses, benches, picnic tables, signs, and improvements to the wood shop, etc. These types of projects are typically small, group-based projects to foster a cooperative spirit and practice.
The eighth grade feels like a year of looking back at the grades past, and also looking ahead to a new school environment and new challenges. In the woodworking curriculum, students make a personal piece of furniture to mark this time – a three-legged stool upon which they can sit to view the world from their vantage point! This project engages the students in several important ways: It is physically demanding, it requires attention to design and construction detail to create structural soundness and beauty, and it provides plenty of room for creative expression. The round mortise and tenon are introduced, wedges are made to secure joints, and the plane is also used. By the eighth grade year, there is a lively readiness to take on this project, with students applying themselves with great vigor, yet great care. A variety of woods are obtained from local sources, and students select their own pieces and shape them with their individual creativity. Students completing the stool project with time remaining either assist other students or work on an additional small project. As in seventh grade, the additional project is generally designed to contribute something to the school.
Our school has a dedicated math subject teacher for the 6th, 7th and 8th grade classes. These classes are provided four days per week in 6th grade and five days per week in 7th and 8th grade. The math curriculum presented in these classes is described in the Middle School curriculum.
|From owning land and maintaining a Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm to its current use, the gardening program at Davis Waldorf School has changed considerably over the years. The garden space now includes eight raised beds, picnic tables, a hen house, a compost heap, and a wood-fired pizza oven, which was built by the graduating class of 2015/2016 when they were in third grade. Historically, our garden area has been maintained by third grade parents with gardening classes run by parent volunteers in support of the third grade farming curriculum. The school has long desired a gardening and land stewardship program for the entire school. With the help of a five-year private grant, the school was able to hire a part-time teacher to develop and support the gardening program in 2014. At this time, all students in Early Childhood through 8th grade are served by a dedicated Gardening teacher, with most classes receiving lessons once per week.|
In early childhood, no formal teaching occurs; however, the gardening teacher spends one hour each week in the respective garden areas, caring for the plants and inviting children to participate if interested. Simple seasonal songs are brought while caring for the garden. All garden work is undertaken in the spirit of wonder, care, and respect for all living things.
In the spirit of awe, wonder and reverence, first graders are invited to partake in gardening activities, tasks, and nature-inspired games in a gentle and seasonal manner. Children learn to work together and how to care for the earth. They also learn by imitating the teacher. Imaginative stories lead the children throughout the year.
Second graders begin caring for the earth and all of her creatures with greater love and attention. Gardening is structured to promote cooperative work and a spirit of joy as children care for the garden, the creatures, and the school community. Children hone their observation skills while they explore the garden.
Farming is a major area of study for third graders. They learn about animals on a farm, planting in relation to the seasons, and composting. There are several practical tasks for children to do, like clearing weeds or turning the compost pile. Students enjoy following the lifecycle of a seed to a plant and harvesting seeds to be passed on to the next third grade class. The children plant many grains, like wheat or barley, which are mentioned in the Old Testament. They also learn about plants used for dyeing, like indigo or Osage orange. They begin to construct simple gardening tools and structures as they learn about shelters from around the world during main lesson. All the tending to the garden provides a bounteous supply of fruit and vegetables that are used during a weekly cooking class.
Fourth graders learn about native plants used by the Indians. Many of these plants can be found on campus or by taking a short walk to the Greenbelt. Students make many maps, like imagining what the campus might have looked like before settlers came. The children study the importance of animals and insects to the garden and treat them with kindness and respect. They learn how to cultivate and care for red wiggler worms and how to use their castings in the garden. The students also create habitats for birds, bats and beneficial insects. All this work teaches the children about the interdependence of all plants and creatures.
In fifth grade, students are introduced to botany. They learn about the ten vegetable families and broaden out to fungi and tree communities. Students also explore the uses of herbs, both medicinal and culinary, through various gardening projects. Finally, students learn how to make objective observations of plants and insects in the garden and natural world, following the Goethean principles.
In sixth grade, the students are mentally and physically ready for hard physical work. They are beginning to understand cause and effect, and begin work in formal and scientific study. Additionally, they begin formal exploration of vocations and business-related work in their main lesson studies. Gardening class will focus on the vocational aspect and significance of market gardening, with students participating with learning to make change, approach a customer, and how to prepare a plant sale for the school at the spring May Faire. Work in the fall and winter will include managing the school’s composting efforts, learning about lunar cycles as indicators for garden work, and propagating plants using a variety of techniques. They will learn basic pruning as they work to prune the many roses on campus.
The seventh grade year focuses on connecting students to the world around them through community service, practical work, and nutrition, as they grow and learn about seasonal and locally-grown food. Students spend a number of weeks working with an educational farm in the Davis area as they participate in seasonal food production. Students this year also build and learn to use a solar food dehydrator, understanding the significance of the movement of air and influence of heat in the process. This reinforces the study of local seasonal foods and nutrition as we learn to eat and preserve seasonally-available foods. The year will emphasize studies and work in the garden surrounding nutrition. Students will use their Gothean observational skills in order to carry out and observe characteristics of the soil and changes in plants under different soil conditions. Links to human nutrition will be made as we compare and contrast this phenomenon and as we grow vegetables for a meal, we will prepare and share with the school community. Students will compare their own fresh garden vegetables to those found in the store and from local markets, looking at differences in appearance, taste, smell and freshness.
This year seeks to apply what the students have learned over the previous years of gardening class towards work in the community and in their care for the school campus. Students will work in the community in volunteer service to a farming and gardening-related organization. Observation through Goethean methods will additionally continue in weather study. These observations will include taking daily temperature highs and lows, barometric pressure changes, recording the day’s weather and cloud types, as well as measuring and documenting any precipitation. Gardening lessons in weather will cover basic weather phenomena explanations, as well as studying cloud types and their role in the ensuing weather systems. Basic permaculture design study and work will round out the year with students looking at the school campus through this relationship-based lens and making suggestions for future use and development of the school site based on their knowledge. They will participate in a small project each year, working to improve water capture and storage from run-off, using permaculture design principles.